miércoles, 30 de septiembre de 2009
Influenza A: The thin red line between prevention, information and scaremongering
* We know that the first pandemic of the XXI century fast forward, but also that, for now, is far less deadly than the common cold.
* Is there a concern is excessive or justified? What are the data? What the experts say?
* What happened to bird flu? What interests were reported then?
martes, 29 de septiembre de 2009
Pascual Bolufer, Chemical Institute of Sarria (IQS)
The NTC is a ribbon of graphene rolled up to form the nanotube. When cutting a graphene sheet (pictured), will do an angle, ie attaching the NTC chirality. Depending on the angle of cut, the NTC shall become metallic or semiconducting.
Chemical Institute of Sarria (IQS) has since 1994 of the Laboratory of Materials Science, where Dr. Carles Colominas works with nanocomposites, coatings synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and sol-gel technique, wet, for obtain ultra hard materials, with hardness of 10 to 40 times higher than steel. The oldest center in nanomaterials is AIN (Navarre Industry Association) in Cordovil. Let us add the Institute of Science and Technology of Polymers (CSIC), Madrid, AIMPLAS (Institute of Polymer Technology), in Paterna (Valencia), and finally, let me quote a Nanospain (www.nanospain.org). Has 275 research groups and 1,200 researchers.
But industrial and commercial level, where we find a company doing business with nanotechnology? There is an exception that proves the rule. Pere Castell, Nanozar, says that the industry sees nanotechnology as a high risk market, not assumed by it, and that Spain suffers from a lack of highly qualified technical staff. The properties 'miracle' of nanomaterials are a reality, but turning them into industrial success is even more difficult. Progress will be steady but slow.
There are many kinds of nanomaterials, for example, nanoclays (an easy topic for reinforcement of polymers) and carbon nanotubes, one or many layers. The latter are very difficult to handle. Carbon hexagonal networks are curved and closed trivalent, which have a length of several microns. Their diameters range from 1 to 20 nanometers. They were discovered by S. Iijima, Japan in 1991. There are two types: single wall, or mono, and multi-walled, up to 100 layers.
To understand the problem, simply quote the NIMS (National Institute for Materials Science), Tsukuba, Japan. The research teams that have not any business can afford, or the international level. Only the state: high-voltage microscopy and electron synchrotron, among others.
NTC Nano Tech Institute of the University of Texas.
The nano scale
The chemicals, through bottom-up strategies, have been synthesized molecular materials that have extremely interesting physical properties. The nanochemistry is an invaluable tool for developing even artificial molecular machines. So says Thomas Torres Barley, from their chemistry professor at the UAM. The chemist can offer electronics engineers assembled car systems, like bricks on a molecular scale to build transceivers electronic and electro-optical, much smaller than those of current in use.
The nanochemistry, which manipulates materials at the nanometer scale, between 1 and 100 nm, representing an impact of several orders of magnitude on submicrometer technology, which is the foundation of today's electronics
The nanochemistry manipulates materials at the nanometer, between 1-100 nm. Represents an impact of several orders of magnitude on submicrometer technology, which is the foundation of today's electronics. Their interest is obvious. It involves constructing, from pieces of matter such as atoms and molecules, supramolecular entities at the nanoscale with specific properties. Try to manipulate molecular scale structures and providing them with new properties, not found in conventional materials.
The molecular materials are synthesized separately and organized into some kind of condensed phase, capable of presenting unconventional physical properties. The properties of nanostructured materials depend on the size effects of dimensional changes of the system. Nanocrystalline materials usually consist of crystalline blocks and there is a marked difference with glasses and gels, which are microstructurally homogeneous.
The best energy to work at a molecular switch machine or are photons and electrons. A much-repeated phrase, that Richard Feynman gave on December 29, 1959: There's plenty of room in the bottom.
The strength or hardness of crystalline material, according to Hall-Petch effect depends on the grain size. At any pressure, as grain size decreases, the metal hardens. Young's modulus characterizes the elastic material behavior, according to the direction in which force is applied, and voltage values in the range of complete reversibility of deformation. The value of Young's modulus is defined by the ratio of the voltage applied to the material and the deformation caused. The smaller the grain, the higher the Young's modulus, the greater the force to be applied, so that the metal enters the zone of plasticity.
Shear modulus with the same thing happens: the smaller the grain, the greater the force that must be done to achieve a given deflection.
NTC French CEA (Atomic Energy Commission).
Thermodynamics suggests that the nanostructures synthesized probably never get the uniformity and perfection of electronic circuits made with silicon crystals
The Hall-Petch effect holds for grains of a diameter greater than 12 nm. For smaller grains hardness decreases. There dislocations within a grain, which spread to nearby grain, and weaken the metal. A smaller, more difficult is the propagation of dislocation and the emergence of metal plasticity. But the practical results are not encouraging, do not confirm the theory. Thermodynamics suggests that the nanostructures synthesized probably never get the uniformity and perfection of electronic circuits made with silicon crystals obtained with conventional lithography. The mere size reduction, by itself, can not provide the expected increase in features.
Nanotubes National Microelectronics Center (CNM)
CNM works in the UK Dr. Adrian Bachtold, who has made some statements that try to summarize here. Try to clarify the quantum properties of the NTC and its behavior in applications. The center has the largest clean room in Spain and with international professional experience. They are concerned with mechanical and electrical properties of NTC. For example, how an electron flowing through the NTC, which is its vibration, or see if there are quantum phenomena and what type.
After the first logic circuit made from nanotubes, seems to have made little progress. More than two decades ago which spoke of the possibility of substituting silicon for NTC, to improve their performance. Until our work appeared in Science in 2001, it was not proven, you could build a logic circuit with a few molecules. That did not mean to appear shortly NTC based computers. NTC is now getting something simple and inexpensive, but its handling remains very complex. Moreover the NTC can behave as metals, semiconductors or superconductors. Recall here that the diamond is pure carbon insulation.
Three of the four photos show the NTC linking electrodes. Donald Bethune of IBM.
The NTC can be a good option to replace silicon. The properties of NTC are clearly superior to the latter, in phenomena such as conductivity or transductancia
We do not have techniques to efficiently manipulate the NTC. In addition, a random feature on a surface, which forces discover, and it is not easy. The NTC should be in a precise position on the substrate (polymer), which reinforced.
The NTC can be a good option to replace silicon. The properties of NTC are clearly superior to those of the latter. For example, phenomena such as conductivity or transductancia. This is important so that the circuits operate at higher speeds, and therefore have better transistors. We must master the management of carbon atoms, that is what defines, if you are superconducting or not.
The NTC defines a rigid structure, strong and very light with mass, but we know very little about other mechanical properties: the vibration. Your understanding would open the door to many applications, from optimizing energy use in mobile telephony, the identification of weak forces (sensors very sensitive), or detect the mass of a single atom. It also expects a lot of quantum computing.
Before this, what really matters is the basic science that lies behind the NTC. For example, see how the NTC behave according to the principles of quantum mechanics. Also interested in their behavior as a function of temperature, or the fluctuation of atoms at that level.
The reality is we still do not understand well what happens at the nano scale. So far Dr. Adrian Bachtold, the CNM. If you can not measure at the nanoscale, one can not progress in nanoscience.
It's disappointing, after much research in molecular engineering of nanosystems, the lack of success in technological and commercial exploitation. The manipulation of molecular structures is a very difficult issue. And it is worth remembering that we have changed the structure of polymers, which are now everywhere. These are molecules that can be considered large.
The photo has merit: insert at NTC hemispheres of Buckminster fullerenes. Dr. A. Yazdani, Science Photo Library - Institute of Physics, London 2007.
Production of NTC
The best known method for the production of NTC is the sublimation of carbon in an inert atmosphere. Also by electric arc discharge. It consists of generation of plasma through a current between two carbon electrodes, a distance of 1 mm in an inert atmosphere. The electrodes reach 3,500 ° C. The alignment, performance and quality of the NTC depend on the conditions of the arc and plasma stability. Other methods include laser ablation and catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons.
The chirality is a property to be reckoned with in the NTC. A chiral object has no rotation axes. Chiral molecules have the ability to shift (rotate) the plane of polarized light that passes through them. The plane is diverted angle. If the light rotates clockwise, the molecule is dextrógena, swi is left is levorotatory.
In the NTC chirality corresponds to the direction in which rolls a sheet of graphite one atom thick to form the nanotube. Graphite sheet appears the tape, which wound into the NTC. It is easy to imagine that the tape can be cut from the sheet forming different angles, from 0 to 90 degrees. The chirality and therefore the properties of the NTC, depend on the angle of cut. NTC may not achieve the same chirality, because some are NTC hardware (drivers), and other semiconductors. All tubes are made by assembling hexagons, but the chirality varies. It's a mixture.
At Duke University seems to have managed to grow exclusively NTC type semiconductor. Its merit is to have achieved a precise combination of two alcohols with argon and hydrogen, with copper as catalyst
The polymer sheet absorbed well the NTC. In the picture the NTC pull the organic film. Trinity College 2006.
The problem remains, as in monolayer tubes, which in the multilayer. Separate the NTC for chirality is not possible, because, due to attractive Van der Waals forces, the NTC tend to self-assemble to form fibers or meshes.
The news, last January, comes from Duke University. Jie Liu and Patricia Crawford say they have managed to grow exclusively NTC type semiconductor. Its merit is to have achieved a precise combination of two alcohols with argon and hydrogen, with copper as catalyst. We will have to confirm their method.
There NTC chirality zero: the nanotube shows a side view vertical rows of hexagons, parallel to the axis of the nanotube. The nanotubes with chirality have rows of hexagons, forming an angle with the axis of the NTC. The intertwining of the NTC, or when mixed with thermoplastic resins, greatly increases the viscosity.
The most practical method to select NTC is the chemical vapor deposition that is performed in the IQS, Barcelona. It is based on the decomposition of gaseous hydrocarbons (benzene or acetylene) precursor called on a graphite substrate covered by transition metals (cobalt, iron, nickel) that act as a catalyst. Temperatures range between 700 and 1,500 ° C. The NTC of this method are not straight but curved, forming a conglomerate contaminated with catalyst. The diameter of the NTC is quite uniform.
When the pyrolysis is conducted in the presence of organo-metallic compounds are obtained NTC aligned. The NTC growth is fast initially, but decreases greatly when the catalyst is encapsulated in the NTC. The density is very low compared with graphite, which is a great advantage for certain applications.
The theoretical mechanical properties of the NTC are fascinating, but in practice no such high values are achieved. Its characteristics depend largely on the high ratio radius / length and surface to volume ratio, which in turn implies a drastic increase in interfacial area.
They are also highly elastic, ie ideal candidates for reinforcement in polymers, comparing with traditional reinforcing. For its ability to withstand high strains offer a significant advantage over carbon fiber. The assumption has been achieved ideal dispersion in the polymer matrix. As the agglomerates present NTC is a challenge to achieve effective dispersion.
In fact, the dispersion is achieved in a mixed base, which acts as a shearing and breaking the NTC. If the mixing is energy, reduces the length of the NTC, which is not serious. In fact, the ratio radius / length of the NTC is still high, is reduced from 1,000 to 250.
Nanopolímero final properties depend on the degree of dispersion and alignment of the NTC
The carbon nanotube is formed by trivalent.
It's the price we pay for achieving acceptable dispersion. Nanopolímero final properties depend on the degree of dispersion and alignment of the NTC. The direction and degree of alignment of the NTC are determined using TEM images and X-ray diffraction
The NTC provide the polymer not only greatly improved the mechanical properties but also electrical: conductivity, increased by 10 orders of magnitude, an advantage over conducting electrical charges.
The polystyrene acrilonitrito-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and polypropylene are used to form multi-component, where the dispersion of the NTC is carried out using a mixer. The dispersion achieved is analyzed by SEM and TEM techniques.
The charge transfer of the polymer matrix to the NTC is influenced by the interfacial binding by the molecular structure of the polymer and its ability to form helices arranged around the individual nanotube.
The uniform distribution is achieved with a concentration of NTC low, less than 1% by weight, at least in the case of PS and PMMA. Increasing the concentration to 2.5 or 10% changes the properties of charge, but the disadvantages outweigh the advantages.
The epoxy matrix can not be reinforced with NTC, due to weak interfacial bonds between the two phases. The NTC-polymer chemical bonds lead to a successful transfer.
lunes, 28 de septiembre de 2009
How to improve surface finish in the infusion process
Olli Piiroinen, European Manager of marine industry. Ashland Composite Polymers
AME VPRO is based on vinyl ester resins from Ashland base.
• Easy to apply, curing properties and resistance to sag.
• Can be used with standard MEKP peroxide-50.
• Low emissions.
• Versatile: can be used for any marine area, above or below the waterline.
• Excellent surface finish, profile enhancer.
• Superior chemical resistance.
• Cost efficient in production.
• Maintains flexibility integrally laminating and other physical properties.
Draft 16 months
• Ashland Finland - Resins.
• Ahlstrom Fiber Glass - Reinforcements.
• Mikpolis Ltd - Test facilities and instruments.
• Miktech Ltd - project planning, practical work and coordination.
Origin and objectives of the project
• Origin: the achieve good surface quality is considered the most important challenge of vacuum infusion. There is a need for a new test method for measuring the surface quality.
• Project Objectives: to develop a reliable test method for evaluating surface quality and achieve a good surface quality in the infusion.
AME VPRO fully retains the flexibility of rolling and other physical properties.
Process and method
The testing process is divided into 3 stages:
- Development of a sandwich laminate test.
- Post-cured at high temperatures.
- Analysis of the laminate using a 3D profilometer. The 3D Optical Profilometer ago MicroProf optical measurements of surface profile, it calculates the parameters from any one area and create a 3D image of the surface.
Achieve good surface quality is considered the most important challenge of the vacuum infusion
The effect of curing
Vs. outdoor. Laboratory conditions:
• 16 hours post cure at 80 ° C is equivalent to one month outdoors under direct sunlight.
• The maximum external surface temperature of the laminate as about 60 ° C.
Reducing the set of fiber
• AME VPRO barrier layer above the 'skin coat' on surface quality.
• The addition of skin under the coat barrier layer does not significantly improve the surface quality.
Comparison of resins
• There are major differences between the resins in the final surface quality.
• unsaturated polyester resins were clearly the worst of the resins tested.
• DCPD resins and AME (VE) have similar surface characteristics.
• LP resins showed the best surface quality.
Laminate by infusion
The effect of resin chemistry on the surface quality:
• The chemistry of the resin has a very significant effect on surface quality.
• In infusion resins only low profile (LP) as such give a similar or higher surface quality compared to hand lay-up
• All traditional resins require the use of a coating that improves the surface (skin coat or barrier layer).
• The barrier layer (AME VPRO) improves the surface quality with better results than skin coat reinforced.
• When using traditional chemical resins, the best surface quality can be obtained with resin infusion low-styrene.
• Using low resin content of styrene DCPD results are improved surface quality when compared to ortho and isophthalic resins traditional.
• Of all the tests with no tracidionales resins LP, The AME 6000 INF (the next generation of vinyl ester resins low styrene content) are offering better surface quality.
domingo, 27 de septiembre de 2009
Solving corrosion problems due to fiber reinforced polymers
Michael G. Stevens, head of the Scientific Staff of Ashland Inc.
In the early '50s, a central chlor-alkali manufacturing suffered serious corrosion in the heads and heads of their cells. The cells required chlorine replacement in less than a year. In response to this critical need, we developed a new type of polyester resin, based on Chlorendic anhydride. This unsaturated polyester resin chlorinated polyester resin was called Chlorendic. When this material was used together with glass fibers to prepare and heads covered cells, the team's life stretched from 5 to 8 years compared with the original building materials requiring replacement in less than a year. This was the beginning of the use of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) for corrosion control. Over the next 50 years new materials have been developed for many different applications. Over the years, reinforcing materials also have improved significantly. Innovations in both fields have resulted in a substantially longer life, maintenance free, FRP equipment. The use of FRP resins in various industries will be discussed in this document. This review will provide the reader an overview of where they should be considered FRP materials. The use of FRP also may be more economical in applications that require high-alloy steels or nickel content in stainless steel with a coating or liner. FRPs usually also have lower maintenance requirements compared to the coated steel.
Wet electrostatic cast zinc epoxy vinyl ester resin made in Spain.
Mineral processing and mining industries
The mining and mineral processing various strong acids used to extract minerals from ores of low quality. The primary acid used in mineral processing is sulfuric acid, which is very corrosive to most metals as well as for concrete. If steel is used for storage tanks or process equipment, should also apply a coating or lining. Most of these coated or lined tanks requires continuous maintenance to keep protected steel. A better option in these applications is to use a team of FRP made with a resin that is resistant to strong acids. The most common resin used for these applications is an epoxy vinyl ester resin bisphenol A. Many pieces of equipment can be manufactured using epoxy vinyl ester resins. These applications include but are not limited to, electrolytic cells, cell extraction, electrowinning, electrostatic precipitators, exhaust fans, ducts, fans, scrubbers, chimneys, inner liners of chimneys, covered with cells, grilles, handrails, storage tanks, sedimentation tanks, pipes, pumps and cooling towers. There are many cases available to support the successful use of epoxy vinyl ester resins for such applications.
Pulp and paper industry
The bleaching process used in making paper is very corrosive. The most common material currently used for paper bleaching is chlorine dioxide. It was discovered that the brominated vinyl ester novolac epoxy resins provide excellent resistance to chlorine dioxide based on trials in paper mills. The types of equipment at a paper mill that can be made of FRP are adequately designed and constructed upstream pipes, towers, tanks, washing drums, drum covers, pipes, scrubbers and hoods. Also available are many cases to demonstrate the feasibility of FRP in these applications.
FRP Ducts in a power station.
The energy industry in the U.S. is in the process of installing gas desulfurization units (FGD by its initials in English) in all its coal plants to reduce the amount of acid gases that are emitted by these units. The most effective process to remove these acid gases is the scrubbing system wet FGD. Typically, limestone slurry is used as a means of purification. This will eliminate approximately 99% of sulfur dioxide from flue gas. The debugging environment is highly corrosive to metal, but the scrubbers, limestone slurry pipes, water pipes, ducts and inner liners of chimneys every FRP can be designed and constructed properly. You have to specify the appropriate resin for a long lifetime without maintenance. Other areas in the power plant that can be used in FRP separator gas particles, cooling towers, storage tanks and wiring steps. The FRP has a very competitive cost compared with steel alloys with high nickel content, which otherwise would have to be used in this corrosive environment. The team made of alloys with high nickel content is at least double the cost of FRP equipment comparable. The other option is to use coated or FRP lined steel equipment. Although this is a viable alternative, the maintenance costs tend to be significantly higher for coatings and linings.
Chemical process and oil industry
One of the first uses of FRP was a central chlorine-alkali. We developed a chlorinated polyester resin to withstand the corrosive environment of the cells and covered heads of these. Have also been used epoxy novolac vinyl esters to produce the heads of the cells in chlorine plants. Other areas that can be successfully used FRP components are pipes, storage tanks, gratings and handrails.
Flue gas scrubber complete FRP (27 x 23.5 meters) with outflow tract in 600 MW power plant on the Ohio River.
The use of FRP has also been expanding in many other chemical processing plants. Some areas are ideal for FRP are those that are present mineral acids and chlorides. The chlorides in water such as salt water or brine are very aggressive to stainless steel. These are ideal applications for FRP, as the team made from isophthalic polyester resin quality corrosion or epoxy vinyl ester resins is almost inert to salt water at temperatures up to 80 ° C (and higher for some resins). These resins have been used for FRP pipes and cooling towers especially when using salt water. Other applications include tanks, reactors, scrubbers, pipes, vents and ducts.
Fiber reinforced polymers provide superior performance to other construction materials
Facilities wastewater treatment has many applications in the FRP that is currently used. Sodium hypochlorite is currently the preferred material for treating wastewater. The preferred material for storage tanks FRP sodium hypochlorite is constructed from brominated epoxy vinyl ester. When these tanks were manufactured properly, have lasted more than 20 years. The reasons that PKB is the preferred material is primarily its low initial cost, low maintenance costs and long life of the tanks. Other construction materials do not last as long or have a cost of more than double the FRP tank. The odor abatement systems in central wastewater treatment are also made of FRP based on epoxy vinyl ester. Scrubbers, absorption towers, ducts, vents and pipes are all made of FRP.
Internal Linings FRP chimney.
Keys to a successful application of FRP
To ensure a successful application of FRP is necessary to consider several steps that are key. The first step is to determine if there is an appropriate resin for the service.
The selection of the appropriate resin is very important to a long life. The information required to make the selection of the resin include chemicals used, minimum and maximum concentrations, temperatures, abnormal conditions, requirements and requirements for flame abrasion. With this information, you can select the appropriate resin for the application. Most of the major resin suppliers can help in the selection of the latter through its technical staff consultations or using their published guidelines for selection of resins. The next step is the design of appropriate equipment. This will include the appropriate anti-corrosion lining and construction of the wall structure. The third step is to draft detailed specifications to be followed by the manufacturer and the fourth stage is to make the team. The quality of manufactured equipment is important and must be assessed and approved at an equipment manufacturer based on its ability to meet desired quality requirements in the specification. The next stage is the inspection of equipment manufactured to be performed while being manufactured in transit, once received at the site and prior to commissioning.
The team of FRP has been used successfully to mitigate corrosion in harsh environments since the early 50s. There are many cases which show that the FRP equipment can provide a long useful life. There are many applications where non-alloy steel and stainless steel just can not handle corrosive chemical environments. Currently, many corrosion engineers take into account only if they can find FRP metals appropriate for a given application. In many of these applications, FRP equipment can be used with great success and should be considered as a viable option when searching for material of construction materials for a new team.
sábado, 26 de septiembre de 2009
Updated - Mold Making - Urethane Rubber Molds
viernes, 25 de septiembre de 2009
High requirements for plastic pipes under pressure
HDPE pressure pipes have been used in Europe during décadas.Hay different kinds of materials, but the construction industry is very conservative and tests done should be very thoroughly before accepting the new product. For example, the company got Egeplast Werner Strumann bring to market a new high-pressure tube made of polyethylene and quality Univation Technologies has a new reactor bimodal HDPE PE 100.
The construction of pipelines is becoming more complex to deliver the high performance needed for some applications.
The construction of pipelines is becoming more complex to deliver the high performance needed for some applications. The company Flemish Water Company (VMW) has a new network of 30,600-mile pipeline, which is testing a new pipe diameter pressure to find a suitable system. Radius Systems is a pipe coated to give it more strength.
The reinforced pipe is used primarily in the Middle East. There, Firat Plastik Kaucuk HDPE pipe has developed long-fiber reinforced. PVC can be molecular, aimed at giving a new line of pipes (Molecor has developed the production of large diameter pipes, high pressure applications). And Cincinnati Extrusion has completed energy-efficient system for producing long-diameter high-pressure pipe.
The chemical resistance is very important in some water pipes and plants. Bodycote Testing Group has been reviewing test methods for resistance to chlorine of different polyolefins. PVC has a natural chemical resistance, this means there is a great advantage to the plastic tubes of high pressure.
Besides the domestic supply of plastic pipe is being used in oilfields. Wellstream International uses this type of tubes to be placed under water.
The predictions of life are critical to the industry where failure ducts must be avoided. Kiwa Gas Technology has developed a quantitative model for physical aging of PVC in gas lines. Hessel Ingenieurtechnik has examined designs using PE 100-RC in the water and gas lines to calculate the minimum service life of 100 years.
What technological advances will have an impact on the market? What is the latest innovation for the industry of the ducts? The research is extensive. From new construction to rehabilitation of pipes, plastic pipes are making multiple advances in the world.
jueves, 24 de septiembre de 2009
Deutschland behauptet seine Führung in der Kunststoffindustrie
Die Gründungsmitglieder der deutschen Kunststoffindustrie (WVK) sind Plastics Europe Deutschland, des Verbandes Deutscher Plastics Converters (GKV), der Verband der Hersteller von Kunststoff-und Gummi-Industrie im Verband Deutscher Maschinen-und Anlagenbau (VDMA ) und BKV Plattform für die Verwertung von Kunststoffen.
WVK's Mission ist es, das Bewusstsein für die deutsche Kunststoffindustrie zu erhöhen, bestehend aus Kunststoff-Hersteller, Verarbeiter und Maschinenhersteller, zu definieren und zu gemeinsamen Positionen zu fördern, vor allem in dieser Zeit, die Interessen der gesamten Branche.
Im ersten Quartal des Jahres 2009, sah die deutsche Kunststoff-Hersteller mit ihrem Umsatz sank um 35,5% gegenüber dem Vorjahr.
Der Gründer der WVK, sagte Reinhard Proske: "Die deutsche Kunststoffindustrie ist die Nummer eins in Europa. Dies ist das wichtigste Ziel WVK für die deutsche Industrie. Wir agieren als die Wortführer der gesamten Kunststoffindustrie Kette.
Föderation der Aktivitäten liegen in den Bereichen der Energie-und Ressourceneffizienz, Umwelt-und Verbraucherschutz sowie Innovation und Ausbildung konzentriert. Über 90% der Industriebetriebe sind kleine oder mittlere Unternehmen, glaubt der Verband, die sie befähigen und zu fördern primär.
Die WVK ist Mitglied des Bundesverbandes der Deutschen Industrie (BDI), der die Interessen der Branche vertreten.
Die Föderation der Aktivitäten liegen in den Bereichen der Energie-und Ressourceneffizienz, Umwelt-und Verbraucherschutz sowie Innovation und Ausbildung konzentriert.
Enduring die "Dusche"
Im ersten Quartal des Jahres 2009, sah die deutsche Kunststoff-Hersteller mit ihrem Umsatz sank um 35,5% gegenüber dem gleichen Zeitraum des Vorjahres. Mit 36,1% fiel Inlandsverkäufe mehr als ausländische. Der Produktionsindex ist 31,4% zurückgegangen. Günter Hilken, WVK President und Mitglied der Association of Plastics Europe in Deutschland, der Ansicht, dass Kunststoffe genug haben als Folge der wirtschaftlichen Probleme nach der Krise gelitten, aber in 2010 erwarten, alles besser.
Im gleichen Zeitraum haben, Kunststoffverarbeiter, wie ihre Geschäftstätigkeit hat sich um 19,8% gesunken. Ausländische und inländische Umsatz um 23,9% bzw. 17,2% gesunken. Darüber hinaus hat der Produktionsindex 19,5% zurückgegangen.
Hersteller von Maschinen für die Kunststoff-und Kautschukindustrie haben auch Verluste, nämlich 27%. Hier haben die ausländischen Umsatz um 29% gesunken ist, sondern als nationale, 23%. Jan-Udo Kreyenborg, Vorsitzender des Verbandes der Kunststoff-und Gummimaschinen im Deutscher Ingenieure eV (VDMA), der Ansicht, dass die deutschen Exporteure von Maschinen für die Kunststoffverarbeitung auf der Welt haben hart in der Krise auf den Märkten gekämpft und hoffen, auch weiterhin tun.
Euromold 2008, Frankfurt am Main.
Wie bereits in mehreren Sektoren geschehen ist, die deutsche Kunststoff-Industrie hat ein Manifest von rund 25 Seiten der Nähe der deutschen allgemeinen Wahlen, die im nächsten September stattfinden vorgestellt.
Mit diesem Dokument des Bundes erfordert politische Vision von Deutschland als ein Zentrum für die Industrie. Die Partnerschaft fordert Gesetze eine Reihe von Bedingungen zu schaffen, um das Land wieder an Attraktivität gewinnen im Hinblick auf die Investition zu machen. In diesem Dokument wird für weniger Bürokratie, eine andere Regelung und steuerliche Anreize für Forschung und Entwicklung, neben anderen Maßnahmen.
Das Dokument wurde von den Mitgliedern der Verbände von Plastics Europe Deutschland, der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Plastics Converters (GKV) und der Verband der Hersteller von Maschinen im Verband Deutscher Maschinen-und Anlagenbau (VDMA) erstellt. Das Dokument wurde dem Politiker verschiedener Parteien, die Deutschland in den Bundestag geliefert.
Sanidad cerrará colegios si la pandemia de gripe A se extiende
Jiménez asegura que las medidas se tomarán de acuerdo con las recomendaciones de la OMS, que de momento dice que no altere la vida cotidiana
La ministra de Sanidad, Trinidad Jiménez, descarta que sea necesario retrasar el inicio del curso escolar por la incidencia de la Gripe A. "Las decisiones se han tomado siguiendo las recomendaciones de la OMS y la UE, que nos dicen que no es necesario alterar nuestra vida cotidiana", ha asegurado Jiménez en una entrevista en la Cadena SER, aunque ha admitido que están abiertos a que se produzcan cierres puntuales de los centros educativos si hubiera índices muy altos de acontagio en algún momento.
El titular de Educación, Ángel Gabilondo, ya manifestó el pasado fin de semana que no había ninguna razón para postergar el inicio del curso. "Lo que sabemos al día de hoy es que no hay ninguna razón para postergar o retrasar el comienzo del curso. Es más, también las organizaciones internacionales europeas han pedido que se trabaje con esa hipótesis y en esa dirección", afirmó ayer el ministro En ese sentido, Trinidad Jiménez ha apuntado que se va a reunir con Gabilondo y los consejeros de las comunidades para acordar "medidas comunes e iniciar el calendario escolar con tranquilidad".
Bajo índice de contagio
La ministra ha admitido su "preocupación" porque el virus, que hasta el momento ha dejado 12 fallecidos en España, es nuevo y no se sabe cómo se va a comportar, pero ha destacado que el índice de contagio es aún bajo. "En los picos más altos hay 60 contagiados por 100.000 habitantes. Ahora estamos en 33 por 100.000, por debajo de Reino Unido, Bélgica y Francia"
Sobre las vacunas, la ministra ha indicado que no hay certezas definitivas. "Se están fabricando, estamos en el proceso de producción y ensayo, pero hay grupos de población donde no se ha ensayado. La Agencia Europea del Medicamento puede tomar la decisión de empezar a vacunar aunque no se hayan terminado los ensayos, pero no depende de ningún Gobierno. Ningún país está en condiciones de saber cuándo tendrá la vacuna", ha afirmado.
Jiménez cree que vendrán periodos de picos altos de contagios. "Aunque la vacuna llegue más tarde, nuestra gran fortaleza es el alto nivel de excelencia de nuestro servicio sanitario", ha asegurado la ministra, para quien una de las mayores posibilidades de respuesta ante la Gripe A es la capacidad de los médicos de familia para reaccionar, una de las causas, en su opinión por las que la incidencia hasta ahora "ha sido baja".
miércoles, 23 de septiembre de 2009
Ziegler Co., GmbH NUEVAS MICAS Y EUROMICAS EN ESPAÑA
Fenner Precision at MD M West 2009
martes, 22 de septiembre de 2009
Germany claimed its leadership in the plastics industry
The founding members of the German Plastics Industry (WVK) are Plastics Europe Deutschland, the Association of German Plastics Converters (GKV), the Association of Machinery Manufacturers for Plastics and Rubber Industry within the German Engineering Federation (VDMA ) and BKV Platform for the Recovery of Plastics.
WVK's mission is to increase awareness of the German plastics industry, consisting of plastic manufacturers, converters and machinery manufacturers, to define and promote common positions, especially at this time, the interests of the entire industry.
In the first quarter of 2009, the German plastics manufacturers saw as its turnover fell by 35.5% compared with the previous year.
The founder of the WVK, Reinhard Proske said: "The German plastics industry is number one in Europe. This is the most important goal WVK for German industry. We act as the spokesmen of the entire plastics industry chain.
Federation's activities are concentrated in the areas of energy and resource efficiency, environmental and consumer protection and innovation and training. Over 90% of the industrial companies are small or medium companies, the federation believes that empower them and promote them primary.
The WVK is a member of The Federation of German Industry (BDI), which represent the interests of the sector.
The Federation's activities are concentrated in the areas of energy and resource efficiency, environmental and consumer protection and innovation and training.
Enduring the 'shower'
In the first quarter of 2009, the German plastics manufacturers saw as its turnover fell by 35.5% over the same period last year. With 36.1%, domestic sales fell more than foreign. The production index has fallen 31.4%. Günter Hilken, WVK president and member of the Association of Plastics Europe in Germany, believes that plastics have suffered enough as a result of economic problems following the crisis, but in 2010 expect everything better.
In the same period, plastic processors have seen their business has dropped by 19.8%. Foreign and domestic sales have fallen by 23.9% and 17.2% respectively. Furthermore, the production index has fallen 19.5%.
Manufacturers of machinery for plastics and rubber have also had losses, namely 27%. Here, foreign sales have fallen by 29%, rather than national, 23%. Jan-Udo Kreyenborg, president of the Association of Plastics and Rubber Machinery within the German Engineers (VDMA), believes that German exporters of machinery for plastics in the world have fought hard in the slump in the markets and hope to continue doing so.
Euromold 2008, Frankfurt.
As has happened in several sectors, The German Plastics Industry has presented a manifesto of some 25 pages to the proximity of the German general elections, which take place next September.
With this document the federation requires political vision of Germany as a center for industry. The partnership calls for legislation to create a series of conditions to make the country a more attractive again in terms of investment. This document calls for less bureaucracy, a different regulation and tax incentives for research and development, among other measures.
The document was drafted by members of the associations of Plastics Europe Deutschland, the German Association of Plastics Converters (GKV) and the Association of manufacturers of machinery within the German Engineering Federation (VDMA). The document was delivered to politicians of various parties representing Germany in the Federal Parliament.
La guía de la gripe A para colegios, pendiente de aprobación por las Comunidades Autónomas
La guía de recomendaciones para prevenir la gripe A en los centros escolares, elaborada por la Comisión de Salud Pública, está "terminada", a falta de que los directores de salud de las CC.AA. den su "aprobación definitiva" al documento, según especificó la ministra de Sanidad, Trinidad Jiménez.
A preguntas de los periodistas al término de la firma del acuerdo para regular la publicidad sobre alimentos destinada a los menores, Jiménez señaló que "la base del trabajo en este proceso" depende del "acuerdo y la colaboración de todos" para que la guía "se pueda implantar y usar en todo el territorio español".
Por ello, la ministra reiteró este lunes que el documento estará finalizado "en el plazo acordado" con el ministro de Educación, Ángel Gabilondo, en la reunión mantenida la semana pasada en la Conferencia Sectorial de Educación.
En este encuentro, los ministerios de Educación y Política Social también acordaron crear una Comisión de seguimiento para analizar la situación y la posible evolución de la gripe A en los centros escolares, tanto españoles como europeos. Asimismo, decidieron por unanimidad continuar con el calendario escolar establecido y no retrasar el inicio del curso.
Rajiv Plastic nuevos masterbatch en España
RPI utiliza las tecnologías más últimas en maquinaria, el R&D, y los materiales juntados con una abundancia del talento y de la experiencia para permanecer a continuación.
Aquí están algunos hechos rápidos en quiénes somos y lo que lo hacemos –
- Establecido adentro 1978: Celebración de 30 años de servicio dedicado
- 3 que fabrican instalaciones con una capacidad instalada de 18000 MTPA
- Solamente Masterbatch fabricante en Asia con la capacidad de fabricar específico de la resina masterbatches para más de 32 diversas resinas que incluye la ingeniería plásticos tales como PC, PMMA, PA 6, PA 6-6, SAN, ABS, PES, etc.
- Sobre 1200 clientes en más de 40 diversos países
- Aprobado vendedores a las compañías multinacionales en los productos de la casa, eléctricos Aplicaciones, productos de consumo, construcción y OEM automotor y automotor segmentos.
- ISO 9001:2000 certificado y profesionalmente funcionamiento
- Reconocido cerca el gobierno de la India como casa prestigiosa de la exportación de la estrella
- Nuestra marca de fábrica sinónimo con nuestra comisión a la calidad, Consistencia y confiabilidad.
- Color y Masterbatches aditivo para los plásticos de la materia
- Color y Masterbatches aditivo para los plásticos de la ingeniería
- compuestos Pre-coloreados de la ingeniería
- Composición del peaje
lunes, 21 de septiembre de 2009
domingo, 20 de septiembre de 2009
Packaging committed to the environment
XXI winners Products DuPont Awards for Innovation in Packaging.
According to recent studies, consumers do not stop supporting friendly trade for the economy. Thus, 44% of consumers said that their ecological habits have not changed despite the current economic situation and a third said they currently are keener to buy environmentally responsible than before. The producers of consumer goods, more than half (55%) say their commitment to sustainable initiatives has not changed and that the packaging is an area of utmost importance (76%).
A jury consisting of a panel of independent international experts coordinated by Anne Johnson, director of the Sustainable Packaging Coalition, evaluated over 120 candidates contest this year in seven areas of innovation included the optimization of energy and resources and improving performance, to select 10 winners and 8 outstanding achievements.
Aveda Vintage Clove shampoo companies Estee Lauder (USA).
Estee Lauder performs a recovery and innovation in using recycled after consumption. This is a proactive program, funded by the company, collection, taken internationally to shops and schools is the heart of this success, complete with the manufacture of bottles, with 96% post-consumer recycled bottle, and whose plugs used 100% recycled polypropylene. The information from the bottle promotes recycling. The bottles are made in a plant using 100% renewable wind energy.
Renewable and compostable tray
Biosphere confectionery Food Industries (USA) cooked in baking dish Renew-A-Pak Company Sealed Air.
Biosphere Industries tray is renewable and compostable, which makes possible the reinvention of retail bakery practices and streamlining the supply chain with a significant reduction of waste.
This new tray of pastries made from 100% renewable material and the total system concept helps to change the processes of pastries to get a result more sustainable. The practices consisted of cooking in pre-disposable metal trays and transfer food to a second container for sale in stores. Ultimately, the consumer is the one that gets rid of the pack as junk. Now the product is maintained in the new dual tray that can be used in the microwave oven and throughout the process to the consumer and can be turned into compost at the end of their use, eliminating waste generation and aluminum need for a second trash container that generated after use.
Aseptic packaging materials using natural light
Lightweight Package Ecolean Group (Sweden).
The innovative design and use of materials on this package, developed by Ecolean Group, allow a tremendous reduction in resources and energy saving. The design for management avoids the need for a separate serving support and rigid. Empty containers weigh only 14 grams, which approximates to a weight reduction of 50% compared with the cartoons, which are the current standard for aseptic packaging. The use of calcium carbonate (lime) reduces the amount of polymer is needed for the structure. With little weight and volume, allows substantially higher freight by truck.
Frozen food trays with 40% of material recovered
ConAgra's Healthy Choice Trays, developed and produced by Associated Packaging Technologies (USA).
With significant use of recycled material, these new trays Associated Packaging Technologies for frozen foods using 40% post-consumer recovered material instead of virgin PET and reinforce the market recovered post-consumer.
A significant achievement is the high level of recycling, scoop into suitable containers for both types of ovens (conventional and microwave). In 2008, prevented more than 3 million and a half kilos of PET recycling landfills after use and used less than 236 million kilocalories in the manufacture of the trays due to the use of recycled content. Virgin CPET is normally used in this type of application due to hygiene requirements. The company met the FDA requirements for use of recycled material in this application.
Bag polythene bags of detergent to replace the corrugated
The polythene invisible box Procter & Gamble (Belgium and Turkey).
A clear and innovative bag replaces the corrugated cardboard, reducing packaging weight by 80% and compressing the volume by 20%, allowing for more efficient transportation and better handling of loads in stock. With a significant reduction in packaging material, P & G achieved a remarkable efficiency to replace the corrugated polythene bag with this sack of detergent packaging multiple and transport more energy efficient. For trade, the advantages include better handling and stock management.
New design of secondary packaging that uses less material
All Days compresses cardboard tray with a case of Procter & Gamble (Germany and USA).
The merchants want to reduce packaging in its stores. Whole systems thinking, Procter & Gamble redesigned this product for smaller packages. The design of the tray and the cardboard sleeve reduces the volume of material and labor, warehouse and improved consumer appeal. It uses less ink and saves up to 80% in print. The shop benefits are improved significantly.
Replacing the bags glass bottle for stand-up '
Bag Bertolli pasta sauce, Unilever and Amcor Flexibles (USA).
Amcor Flexibles Unilever and replaced by glass bottle bags stand-up 'to use 70% less material. This development overcame significant technical limitations in shelf stable packaging for a product that is sensitive to oxygen.
By being able to put in the microwave with the bag, this new package offers significant advantages to consumers and ease of use against the glass and offers advantages in retail because of its easy handling with a shelf life equivalent. The advantages due to the transport efficiency are substantial. A truckload of empty bags equivalent to 25 trucks of empty glass jars.
Pill that reduces packaging waste
Package Prilosec OTC Procter & Gamble and Alcan Packaging (USA).
The search for systems resulted in this major redesign of a standard concept in the industry. This new design of a container for pills reduces waste and allows to include a full treatment in a single blister. This achievement has doubled the number of pills that can go in a blister, so that the consumer has a complete treatment in a single strip. Reducing packaging waste is significant.
Cardboard gift boxes and labels renewable, recyclable and biodegradable
Pangea Organics Gift Boxes Holiday Gift Boxes (USA).
The carton and label change to renewable / recyclable / biodegradable reinforcing the brand image of these organic gift boxes Pangea Organics Holiday Gift Boxes, while that gives it more attractive on the shelf. Among the outstanding achievements in sustainability in the category of gift boxes, this redesign is in line with ecological brand positioning and maintain the attractiveness while reducing substantially the amount of packaging. The board has made entirely with renewable materials, recyclable or biodegradable and uses vegetable inks. The seeds are embedded in the cardboard, which can be planted as directed.
Cans, 30% more efficient transport and storage
Easy Pour Containers barrier of A & C Packers (Australia).
A & C Packers develops a new design for cans of 20 liters to 30% more efficient transport and storage, and reusable and recyclable after use. This new structure replaces barrier steel drums in the most common applications and is reusable solvent at 5 years of use, compared with the previous single-use. The innovative design allows for better stacking and space efficiency (30% improvement). The new Easy Pour neck design also helps prevent splashing loss or transfer. At the end of its use, the containers are recycled into items such as drainage pipes.
sábado, 19 de septiembre de 2009
viernes, 18 de septiembre de 2009
Side-loading plastic containers accessible to all citizens
Barcelona join your furniture a new line of containers accessible to all citizens, with a design that takes into account the problems of disabled people. Thus, on 2 November, the Catalan capital will be 27,000 new side-loading containers, designed by Ros Roca Fultech with the help of a specialized engineering plastics industry.
The covers are organized asymmetrically in some fixed points and displaced to the user side.
The new side-loading plastic containers, which Ros Roca presented at the last edition of Ecocity & Industry, are characterized by being manufactured in a 82% plastic and 17% in metal components, all one hundred percent recyclable. Containers, dubbed the Barcelona model, are designed for ease of use, is why have a lower loading lip height that allows for improved accessibility for people with reduced mobility or physical limitations.
The new containers have a lower loading lip height that allows for improved accessibility for people with reduced mobility or physical limitations
Emphasizes the absence of articulated gantry mechanism for the tops of the new containers. These are organized asymmetrically in some fixed points and displaced to the user side, allowing to have a larger cap for container discharge into the collector and a smaller cap for the user to deposit the waste.
The company has models for packaging, paper and cardboard, glass, organic matter and rest.
For packaging, paper and cardboard, glass and organic debris
The new containers are available in models 3200 or 2200 liters for MSW / Rest; of 2,200 liters for organic than 3,200 liters for packaging; of 3,200 liters for paper / cardboard and 2,200 liters for glass.
All compliant UNE - EN 12,574 - 1/2/3, have marked the sound level according to European Directive 2000/14/EC and reduce odors by adding a record for ventilation. The two volumes of container (2,200 or 3,200 liters) share the same profile so that only the width varies between lifting devices. This promotes uniformity of the containers installed on the street in the case of islands shaped containers with different capacities. They are also equipped with a centering / alignment beneath the containers at its central axis which allows all containers on battery to maintain their alignment and position.
jueves, 17 de septiembre de 2009
Making a brush on mold with silicone
The Spanish chemical industry production drops by 16% due to crisis
This is reflected in the public report released today by the Tarragona Chemical Business Association (HECT), entity that groups 26 chemical companies present at the chemical plant in the province, including some gauge as BASF, Dow Chemical, Repsol, Air Products or Ercros.
The data indicate that production in 2008 stood at 17.824 million tons, representing 16% less than in the previous year, when chemical plants produced a total of 21.183 million tonnes.
The decrease is directly related to the economic crisis, although the chemical only started to notice symptoms of recession during the fourth quarter of last year, which does provide some results for 2009 still less complimentary, recognized the president of the HECT, Antón Valero.
Projections show, in this sense that production will fall this year by around 30% over 2008, bringing it to values below 2001.
This is due in part to the crisis in housing and automotive sectors, to which the chemical industry in Tarragona devoted about 10% of its production and whose orders have fallen about 40%, said Valero.
Other sectors, like agriculture and food, have kept the volume of orders, he added.
The drop in orders not only affects production, but is forcing companies to reduce the number of employees themselves, that so far this year has dropped about 5%, which means they have destroyed some 300 jobs, of which 5705 were accounted last year.
Layoffs in regard to staff recruitment in 2008, a total of 4562 people worked indirectly for chemistry Tarragona, are even more bulky, although concrete data are available, said the president of the HECT.
Nor is ruled out of a plant shutdown because "we are still facing a major crisis," he insisted Valero, who has observed that "recently there are signs of movement, which, however," are not yet consolidated.
Will the "October or November," when you start walking to see where the industry has added the head of the HECT, who considers to be "fundamental" the speed of recovery from the Asian continent.
Still, the industry has stated that new investments are being implemented, including $ 15 million of the new center for desalination and water recycling Dow or the six million that is being devoted to the construction of single outfall the south site, which is expected to launch later this year.
Looking ahead, the HECT has presented the principal work of the Strategic Plan 2009-2012, whose objectives are to promote legislation "applicable and consistent" with the sector, sustainably develop the 'cluster' chemical de Tarragona, promote investment productive R & D & I and streamline workflows.
Chemical Waste kill three people in China
Four of those affected by the waste were children playing near the substance, 2, 4 dinitrophenol, used in scientific research and the manufacture of explosives and pesticides, according to a government statement in Dongyang, a city 250 kilometers southwest Shanghai.
The researchers kept holding four people allegedly responsible for the poisoning, which occurred and Sunday, and city officials pledged to tighten the measures for waste chemicals.
According to a preliminary investigation, a chemical company in substances discarded plastic bags and these arrived illegally in a garbage collector, which in turn sold the bags to another collector. The three people who died were carrying the bags when they started to feel ill, according to the official statement.
It was not clear because it was collectors who bought the chemical waste or if they knew what was in the bags. The immigrants, who hardly have the means to survive by selling scrap recycling industry in the country, selling everything they can find no protective equipment or other precautionary measures.
Four of the injured needed intensive care, but the condition of 17 people was "basically stable", the government of Dongyang.
Rodrigo Casasnovas chemist has won the SusChem
The aim of these awards is to give public recognition to the work of young researchers in the field of chemistry and promote scientific and educational activities among students.
SusChem Spain Spanish is the technology platform for sustainable chemistry, an entity promoted by the Business Federation of Spanish Chemical Industry and several more bodies.
La gripe A ha puesto en evidencia que el pánico tiene más acogida que los mensajes de Sanidad y que la psicosis global es un gran negocio.
El Gobierno retiró
el Tamiflu de las farmacias para que
la población no se automedicaseEl mercado negro del Tamiflú es el ejemplo más sangrante. La retirada oficial de este antigripal de las farmacias ha disparado su venta ilegal en Internet. Su precio oscila entre los 150 y 175 euros –una cifra hasta 445% superior a la que tenía en el mercado cuando se dispensaba– y la farmacéutica suiza Roche, que tiene la patente del producto, ha recomendado no adquirir el medicamento on line ante el aumento de falsos antigripales.
"El Gobierno decidió retirar el fármaco para evitar que la población se automedicase y quedase inmunizada contra la vacuna de la gripe A", informan desde Sanidad. La advertencia ha sido ignorada.
miércoles, 16 de septiembre de 2009
Is there room for bioplastics in the packaging industry?
José Vicente López Álvarez, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid - Lecture Ecoembes
A combination of factors is driving the use of biodegradable plastics. Among them are:
- The high price of petroleum-based resins.
- The increasing consumer awareness about the need to protect the environment.
- Technological maturity reached during the generation of high performance products with these resins.
This explains why in the past five years packaging suppliers have launched biodegradable plastic containers, made from various plants, especially corn, confident that demand will respond positively to their offers. Due to rising prices since 2005 had conventional resins, between 30 and 80%, many companies are inclined to seek alternatives. Some biodegradable plastics have developed a level of maturity that allows them to be competitive, the price gap that separated them from the common resins has decreased considerably, and commodities such as sugar cane and starch are currently cheaper than oil. The productivity and competitiveness tend to increase long-term perspective, and it was evident early and massive concrete applications for these polymers.
Some companies predict that the market for bioplastics in Europe will grow at a rate of 20% per year
Biodegradable plastics can be produced from renewable resources of animal or plant, or fossil resources. The most common materials are PLA, polylactic acid, and PHA, poly-hydroxy-alcanoatos. It is the chemical structure that makes a biodegradable polymer, which unlike a conventional polymer and allows it to be destroyed by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria in biologically active environments. Although figures are not official, it is estimated that the current market for biopolymers is around 300,000 tonnes per year (base 2007), in which the European consumption is around 50,000 tonnes. Maintaining the continuous growth that has occurred so far, the overall capacity required for production of biodegradable polymers reached a million tons around 2010. In this perspective, Ecoembes considered necessary to determine the impact of so-called bioplastics in the management chain of recovery and recycling of conventional plastics. The Environment Ecoembes Chair of the Polytechnic University of Madrid is developing a project to meet this need. The project includes several aspects: criteria for differentiation between bioplastics and biodegradable plastics, quantification of the production and use of this type of plastic, compliance with established standards of biodegradability in the European Union, impacts on current management processes: collection, plant selection (impact on processing lines) and recycling (impacts on processes and mixtures of raw materials).
Biodegradable plastic containers are made from various plants, especially corn. Photo: Stacy Braswell.
Some companies predict that the market for bioplastics in Europe will grow at a rate of 20% annually. Experts, including the Biodegradable Polymers Association and Affinity Groups (IBAW), estimate that with the existing quality and prices is possible to have a growth potential for cornering almost 10% of this market of plastics, which arrives in Europe currently about 45 million tonnes per year.
Currently, the market for biopolymers is developing but still can not compete with traditional plastics
Currently the market for biopolymers is developing but still can not compete with traditional plastics. In the European Union some countries have in their shops fruit and vegetables packed in BPL, but in the case of Spain, the market for BPL in containers is limited to any campaign in any mall.
The market for BPL
The projections are made worldwide for 2010, expects growth of installed global capacity for production of biodegradable materials is 75% compared to the present. Although at present the absolute values do not reach even 1% of the total demand for plastic resins in the world, the growth of biodegradable resins is very high.
A combination of factors is driving the growth and acceptance of biodegradable resins, which are:
- The rising price and high oil-derived resins.
- The consumer awareness on the need to protect the environment, purchase produce 'greener'.
- Technological maturity already achieved in the basic generation of products with these resins.
- Government laws are brewing in several countries, particularly in Europe, encouraging the use of these biodegradable products.
- The exclusion of waste management systems such as landfills and the poor image of energy recovery as a final solution.
Against this background Ecoembes considered necessary to determine the impact of so-called bioplastics in the management chain of recovery and recycling of conventional plastics, and in particular in the management of packaging. The Chair Ecoembes of environment of the Polytechnic University of Madrid is developing a project to meet this need.
It is defined as 'compostable packaging' to one that is biodegradable, producing mainly carbon dioxide, water and humus at a rate similar to that of simple organic materials (eg cellulose) and leaves no toxic or visible residue.
The project defined and specific criteria for differentiation between BPL and biodegradable plastics and, above all, the scope of the certificate of composted called these containers.
It is defined as 'compostable packaging' to one that is biodegradable, producing mainly carbon dioxide, water and humus at a rate similar to that of simple organic materials (eg cellulose) and leaves no toxic or visible residue. There is legislation in the European Union, as the Standard EN 13432 in force since January 2005, among others, which could certify compostable plastics and containers made from them, so that consumers can easily distinguish them. Certification and labeling of bioplastics and biodegradable / compostable, would deal with these post-consumer materials along with the organic waste (food scraps, pruning, papers, etc..) Municipal solid waste composting plants.
Requirements for obtaining a plastic container labeled 'compostable':
- Biodegradability (90% before six months).
- Disintegrated: the fragmentation and loss of visibility of the residue in the final compost (absence of visual contamination). This is measured with a composting test (EN 14045), in which the material must be broken before 3 months, with a size less than 2 mm and reach 90% of the initial mass.
- No negative effects on the composting process itself.
- Low levels of heavy metals (below the predefined maximum values), and the absence of negative effects on the quality of the compost (eg reduction of agronomic value and presence of eco-toxic effects on plant growth).
- Other physical and chemical parameters that should not be different from the control compost after the degradation: pH, salinity, volatile solids, N, P, Mg and K.
Therefore, under this hypothesis, the reason for the packaging of BPL is that the final residue will be managed along with organic matter for composting.
Issues that arise with the use of BIOENV
The market trend is to replace the packaging of malls synthetic plastic packaging for fruit and packaged foods manufactured by other biopolymers. This would avoid, manufacturers claim that many of the containers end up in landfills and composting could be directly with organic matter.
Many supermarket chains and stores in Europe are encouraging the use of these biodegradable packaging to meet the interest of consumers to reduce use of fossil fuels and prevent climate change. Companies know that biodegradable packaging are unpopular among the public with an environmental and want to show their support for sustainable development adopted in their marketing plans.
Within the group of degradable plastic containers, the BPL is presented as an opportunity in all environmental strategies demanded by society. However, technical limitations when it comes to sustainably manage their waste, are still high. The evidence is translated into:
- The market for BPL will be a replacement market, primarily by a shortage of raw materials and competition with other sectors such as bioenergetics and feeding.
- Achieving total biodegradability and no toxicity, is currently investigating. Some biopolymers are not achieved the desired levels.
- Would be needed to develop an infrastructure to collect and process biodegradable polymers as an available option for waste disposal.
- Need for international regulatory or grade to distinguish between biodegradable plastics recyclable plastics.
- The creation of 'eco', based on the life cycle impact of a BIOENV (including raw materials, energy consumption, emissions from manufacture and disposal of waste).
- Education and awareness of biopolymers. Consumers will have to learn that the biopolymers must be separated with organic waste (if available separation) or recovered (where appropriate) and precise technology develops.
This project was presented to CONAMA 9, the National Congress of the Middle A
martes, 15 de septiembre de 2009
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